WikiArtLeaks

Andy Warhol

Screen Tests

1964-1966

Film

a selection of these screen tests that can be found online are at the bottom of this post.

Andy Warhol’s Screen Tests are a series of silent film portraits consisting of several-minute unbroken shots of Factory regulars, Warhol superstars, celebrities, guests, friends, or anyone he thought had “star potential”.

]The films were made between 1964 and 1966 at Warhol’s Factory studio in New York City. Subjects were captured in stark relief by a strong key light, and filmed by Warhol with his stationary 16mm Bolex camera on silent, black and white, 100-foot rolls of film at 24 frames per second. The resulting two-and-a-half-minute film reels were then screened in ‘slow motion’ at 16 frames per second.

Many of the Screen Tests were arranged in different compilations such as 13 Most Beautiful Women, 13 Most Beautiful Boys, and 50 Fantastics and 50 Personalities. This was done with the intention of pleasing certain audiences who Warhol was exhibiting his art to.

Warhol’s Screen Tests, which number approximately 500, are revealing portraits of hundreds of different individuals, shot between 1964 and 1966. The subjects are both regulars of the Factory scene and new visitors—both famous and anonymous. They were all asked to pose to be captured by Warhol’s stationary 16mm Bolex movie camera on silent, black and white, 100-foot rolls of film. Each screen test was exactly the same length, lasting only as long as the roll of film, about 2 ¾ minutes. The resulting films were projected in slow motion so that each lasted approximately four minutes. For exhibition, Warhol strung the Screen Tests together in a sequence, inducing an almost hypnotic reverie that could “help the audiences get more acquainted with themselves,” as he once said.

Although these film portraits were referred to by the Hollywood term of “screen test,” none of them appear to have been used for the purpose of actually testing or auditioning prospective actors. Many were included in compilation films such as the flatteringly-titled 13 Most Beautiful Women, 13 Most Beautiful Boys, and 50 Fantastics and 50 Personalities, which were projected in different versions each time they were screened, depending on who was in the audience or who Warhol wanted to please. Ultimately, Warhol left 89 reels of film marked “13” — 42 Screen Tests of 35 different men and 47 Screen Tests of 30 different women.

Click to view.

Edie Sedgewick screen test 1964

Helmet screen test

Jackie screen test 1967

Goldi screen test 1967

Tussi screen test

Helena screen test 

Marcel Duchamp screen test

Bob Dylan screen test 1965 (audio added: Dean and Britta. Play mute)

Lou Reed screen test 1966 (audio added)

Nico screen test (audio added)

Susan Bottomly screen test (audio added)

Richard Rheem screen test (audio added)

Ann The Girl Who Cries a Tear screen test (audio added)

Freddy Herko screen test (audio added)

Baby Jane Holzer screen test (audio added)

Paul America screen test (audio added)

Dennis Hopper screen test (audio added)

Dali screen test (excerpt)

Sol Lewitt

Autobiography

1980

Images extracted from google image search.

PDF of images found through image search here.

“Autobiography” published by Multiples and Lois and Michael Torf, New York and Boston in 1980. Adam Weinberg in his excellent critique on the book entitled, “LeWitt’s Autobiography: Inventory to the Present” wrote, “When published, “Autobiography” was one of LeWitt’s eighteen “artist books” and one of six photography books. ..These books are no less profound than “Autobiography”, but “Autobiography” is a more complex, ambitious, and in some respects, intimate project…In “Autobiography” LeWitt presents more than a thousand black-and-white images in grids, generally nine to a page. The artist catalogues virtually every corner, crevice, and item in his loft. We see an aggregate of unposed images – the bare facts of his everyday existence.  We investigate each image, but the significance of this autobiography derives from the connection between images on a page, on a spread, and from page to page, as much as from any individual picture… LeWitt’s artist books situate themselves among dozens of the artist’s structures, wall drawings, drawings, and prints. For LeWitt, none of these works or media occupies a privileged position. Each work is a part of a chain of artistic production. Every work is part of a nonhierarchical whole. Thus, contradictorily, LeWitt’s “Autobiography” purports to be just another work, yet its special significance is undeniable. ..In “Autobiography”, Lewitt presents the life of the artist as the life of a particular person, in a particular culture, at a particular time and place. Nevertheless, “Autobiography” is unique in his oeuvre. For LeWitt, whose drawings, wall drawings, and structures are seemingly so pure and pared down, “Autobiography is an unparalleled work. While it takes its place as one work among “equals,” it is singular in its demonstration that LeWitts’s abstract, geometric forms are inextricable from the experience of his life and culture.”

Mel Bochner

Working drawings and other visible things on paper not necessarily meant to be viewed as art

1966

Four identical looseleaf notebooks

182 pages

Excerpted below.

Set of photos of books can be found here.

A PDF of these photos and more can be found on scribd here.

(Visual Arts Gallery, December 2 – December 23, 1966). Initially asked by gallery director Shirley Glaser to organize a Christmas show of drawings, Mel Bochner collected notes, sketches, and diagrams from artist friends (as well as mathematicians, biologists, choreographers, and engineers). He ultimately photocopied the working drawings (using SVA’s brand new Xerox machine), placed them into four identical binders, and mounted them on pedestals in the gallery.

The show’s participants were: Carl Andre, A. Babakhanian, Jo Baer, Mel Bochner, John Cage, M. Carsiodes, Tom Clancy, Dan Flavin, Jim Freed, Milton Glaser, Dan Graham, Eva Hesse, Alfred Jensen, Don Judd, Michael Kirby, William Kolakoski, Robert Lepper, Sol LeWitt, Robert Mangold, Robert Moskovitz, Tom Russell, Scientific American, Robert Smithson, Kenneth Snelson, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Tippetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton (Engineers and Architects), and Xerox.

Visual Arts Gallery, School of Visual Arts, New York, 1966 (1997 reprint copy)

 

Curator: Mel Bochner

 

Andre, Carl

Anonymous

Babakhanian, A.

Baer, Jo

Bochner, Mel

Cage, John

Carsiodes, M.

Clancy, Tom

Flavin, Dan

Freed, Jim

Glaser, Milton

Graham, Dan

Hesse, Eva

Jensen, Alfred

Judd, Donald

Kirby, Michael

Kolakoski, William

Lepper, Robert

LeWitt, Sol

Mangold, Robert

Moskovitz, Robert

Russell, Tom

Scientific American

McCracken, John 

Smithson, Robert 

Snelson, Kenneth

Stockhausen, Karlheinz

Tippetts - Abbett - McCarthy - Stratton (enginners and arch.)

Xerox

Yves Klein
Blue Monochrome
Date:1961
Medium: Dry pigment in synthetic polymer medium on cotton over plywood
Dimensions:6’ 4 7/8” x 55 1/8” (195.1 x 140 cm)
Monochrome abstraction—the use of one color over an entire canvas—has been a strategy adopted by many painters wishing to challenge expectations of what an image can and should represent. Klein likened monochrome painting to an “open window to freedom.” He worked with a chemist to develop his own particular brand of blue. Made from pure color pigment and a binding medium, it is called International Klein Blue. Klein adopted this hue as a means of evoking the immateriality and boundlessness of his own particular utopian vision of the world.
International Klein Blue (or IKB as it is known in art circles) was developed by Yves Klein as part of his search for colors which best represented the concepts he wished to convey as an artist. IKB was developed by Klein and chemists at the French pharmaceutical company Rhône Poulenc to have the same color brightness and intensity as dry pigments, which it achieves by suspending dry pigment in polyvinyl acetate, a synthetic resin otherwise marketed in France at the time by Rhône Poulenc as Rhodopas M or M60A.
In May 1960, Klein deposited a Soleau envelope, registering his paint formulation under the name International Klein Blue (IKB) at the Institut national de la propriété industrielle. The patent was published in April 1961.
Original Recipe (from patent)
Patent No. 63471 Issued Paris, May 19, 1960
IKB has been perfected by Yves Klein le monochrome in the course of the years 1954-55-56-57-58. The current chemical formula is exactly: 
1.2 kilos Rhodopas (paste product) and MA (Rhone Poulenc) (vinyl chrloride) 
2.2 kilos ethyl alcohol. 95% industrial, denatured 
6.0 kilos Ethyl acetate 
A total of 4 kilos 
Mix cold while energetically agitating and never heat uncovered!
Then, mix cold the pure ultramarine blue 1311 in powder with fixative medium, in the proportion of 50%—if one adds 1/10 of the total with pure acetone—and 40%—if one adds pure alcohol.
CONTEMPORARY ADAPTED RECIPE:
Mix together (cold) pure ultramarine blue in powder with fixative medium, in the proportion of 50%.
Ultramarine blue powder and fixative medium can both be purchased in many places. Simpler alternative: find a tube of ultramarine blue that meets your liking and mix with fixative.

Yves Klein

Blue Monochrome

Date:1961

Medium: Dry pigment in synthetic polymer medium on cotton over plywood

Dimensions:6’ 4 7/8” x 55 1/8” (195.1 x 140 cm)

Monochrome abstraction—the use of one color over an entire canvas—has been a strategy adopted by many painters wishing to challenge expectations of what an image can and should represent. Klein likened monochrome painting to an “open window to freedom.” He worked with a chemist to develop his own particular brand of blue. Made from pure color pigment and a binding medium, it is called International Klein Blue. Klein adopted this hue as a means of evoking the immateriality and boundlessness of his own particular utopian vision of the world.

International Klein Blue (or IKB as it is known in art circles) was developed by Yves Klein as part of his search for colors which best represented the concepts he wished to convey as an artist. IKB was developed by Klein and chemists at the French pharmaceutical company Rhône Poulenc to have the same color brightness and intensity as dry pigments, which it achieves by suspending dry pigment in polyvinyl acetate, a synthetic resin otherwise marketed in France at the time by Rhône Poulenc as Rhodopas M or M60A.

In May 1960, Klein deposited a Soleau envelope, registering his paint formulation under the name International Klein Blue (IKB) at the Institut national de la propriété industrielle. The patent was published in April 1961.

Original Recipe (from patent)

Patent No. 63471 Issued Paris, May 19, 1960

IKB has been perfected by Yves Klein le monochrome in the course of the years 1954-55-56-57-58. The current chemical formula is exactly: 

1.2 kilos Rhodopas (paste product) and MA (Rhone Poulenc) (vinyl chrloride) 

2.2 kilos ethyl alcohol. 95% industrial, denatured 

6.0 kilos Ethyl acetate 

A total of 4 kilos 

Mix cold while energetically agitating and never heat uncovered!

Then, mix cold the pure ultramarine blue 1311 in powder with fixative medium, in the proportion of 50%—if one adds 1/10 of the total with pure acetone—and 40%—if one adds pure alcohol.

CONTEMPORARY ADAPTED RECIPE:

Mix together (cold) pure ultramarine blue in powder with fixative medium, in the proportion of 50%.

Ultramarine blue powder and fixative medium can both be purchased in many places. Simpler alternative: find a tube of ultramarine blue that meets your liking and mix with fixative.

CORRESPONDENCE: AN EXHIBITION OF THE LETTERS OF RAY JOHNSON
Link to a downloadable pdf.
Raleigh, North Carolina. North Carolina Museum of Art. (1976.)
Praise to the Raymond Johnson Estate for freeing the art themselves. Available as a downloadable pdf on their site.
Raymond Edward “Ray” Johnson (October 16, 1927 – January 13, 1995), known primarily as a collagist and correspondence artist, was a seminal figure in the history of Neo-Dada and early Pop art. Once called “New York’s most famous unknown artist”, Johnson also staged and participated in early performance art events associated with the Fluxus movement and was the founder of a far-ranging mail art network – the New York Correspondence School – which picked up momentum in the 1960s and is still active today. He lived in New York City from 1949 to 1968, when he moved to a small town in Long island and remained there until his suicide.
Johnson’s first known piece of mail directing a recipient to “please send to…” someone else dates from 1958; the phrases “please add to and return”, “please add and send to”, and even “please do not send to” followed. Johnson’s mail art activities became more systematic with the help of several friends, particularly Bill Wilson and his mother, assemblage artist May Wilson, along with Marie Tavroges Stilkind and Toby Spiselman. In 1962, Ed Plunkett named Johnson’s endeavors ‘the New York Correspondence School’. On April 1, 1968, the first of the meeting of the NYSC was held at the Society of Friends Meeting House on Rutherford Place in New York City. Two more meetings were called by Johnson in the following weeks, including the Seating-Meeting at New York’s Finch College, about which John Gruen reported: “It was … attended by many artists and ‘members’ … all of whom sat around wondering when the meeting would start. It never did … people wrote things on bits of paper, on a blackboard, or simply talked. It was all strangely meaningless – and strangely meaningful.”Johnson staged such events regularly, often following them up with witty typed reports, photocopied for wide distribution via the post. Such gatherings continued to be held in various guises into the mid-1980s.
WANTED: A link to a pdf of Ray Johnson’s The Book Of Death, 13 pages, not in print, unavailable online.

CORRESPONDENCE: AN EXHIBITION OF THE LETTERS OF RAY JOHNSON

Link to a downloadable pdf.

Raleigh, North Carolina. North Carolina Museum of Art. (1976.)

Praise to the Raymond Johnson Estate for freeing the art themselves. Available as a downloadable pdf on their site.

Raymond Edward “Ray” Johnson (October 16, 1927 – January 13, 1995), known primarily as a collagist and correspondence artist, was a seminal figure in the history of Neo-Dada and early Pop art. Once called “New York’s most famous unknown artist”, Johnson also staged and participated in early performance art events associated with the Fluxus movement and was the founder of a far-ranging mail art network – the New York Correspondence School – which picked up momentum in the 1960s and is still active today. He lived in New York City from 1949 to 1968, when he moved to a small town in Long island and remained there until his suicide.

Johnson’s first known piece of mail directing a recipient to “please send to…” someone else dates from 1958; the phrases “please add to and return”, “please add and send to”, and even “please do not send to” followed. Johnson’s mail art activities became more systematic with the help of several friends, particularly Bill Wilson and his mother, assemblage artist May Wilson, along with Marie Tavroges Stilkind and Toby Spiselman. In 1962, Ed Plunkett named Johnson’s endeavors ‘the New York Correspondence School’. On April 1, 1968, the first of the meeting of the NYSC was held at the Society of Friends Meeting House on Rutherford Place in New York City. Two more meetings were called by Johnson in the following weeks, including the Seating-Meeting at New York’s Finch College, about which John Gruen reported: “It was … attended by many artists and ‘members’ … all of whom sat around wondering when the meeting would start. It never did … people wrote things on bits of paper, on a blackboard, or simply talked. It was all strangely meaningless – and strangely meaningful.”Johnson staged such events regularly, often following them up with witty typed reports, photocopied for wide distribution via the post. Such gatherings continued to be held in various guises into the mid-1980s.

WANTED: A link to a pdf of Ray Johnson’s The Book Of Death, 13 pages, not in print, unavailable online.

John Cage

4’ 33”

4′33″ (pronounced “Four minutes, thirty-three seconds” or just “Four thirty-three”) is a three-movement composition by American experimental composer John Cage (1912–1992). It was composed in 1952, for any instrument or combination of instruments, and the score instructs the performer(s) not to play their instrument(s) during the entire duration of the piece throughout the three movements. The piece purports to consist of the sounds of the environment that the listeners hear while it is performed,[4] although it is commonly perceived as “four minutes thirty-three seconds of silence”. The title of the piece refers to the total length in minutes and seconds of a given performance, 4′33″ being the total length of the first public performance.

Conceived around 1947–1948, while the composer was working on Sonatas and Interludes, 4′33″ became for Cage the epitome of his idea that any sounds may constitute music. It was also a reflection of the influence of Zen Buddhism, which Cage studied since the late 1940s. In a 1982 interview, and on numerous other occasions, Cage stated that 4′33″ was, in his opinion, his most important work. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians describes 4′33″ as Cage’s “most famous and controversial creation”

DOWNLOAD from Scribd.
Pre-dating zines, conceptual work, the archive, artist books. Hard to find online. Duchamp published this collection of 94 documents to explain some of his thinking and to show some of the preliminary works relating to The Large Glass. The notes were left loose so that their relationships for the reader would be determined by chance.
Marcel Duchamp (1887‑1968)
The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors Even (The Green Box)
La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires même (Boîte verte)
1934
Medium
Cardboard box, color plate and 94 lithographs, collotypes and ink on paper
Tate
Acquisition

DOWNLOAD from Scribd.

Pre-dating zines, conceptual work, the archive, artist books. Hard to find online. Duchamp published this collection of 94 documents to explain some of his thinking and to show some of the preliminary works relating to The Large Glass. The notes were left loose so that their relationships for the reader would be determined by chance.

Marcel Duchamp (1887‑1968)

The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors Even (The Green Box)

La Mariée mise à nu par ses célibataires même (Boîte verte)

1934

Medium

Cardboard box, color plate and 94 lithographs, collotypes and ink on paper

Tate

Acquisition

Kiss (1963) is an experimental film directed by Andy Warhol, which runs 50 minutes and features various couples — man and woman, woman and woman, man and man — kissing for 3½ minutes each. The film features Naomi Levine, Gerard Malanga, Rufus Collins, Johnny Dodd, and Ed Sanders.

Kiss was followed by Eat (1963), Sleep (1963), and Blow Job (1964).

This was one of the first films Warhol made at The Factory in New York City.

Date:1964Production:USAMedium:16mm print, black and white, silent, approx. 54 min.Credit Line:The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts Film Preservation ProgramMoMA Number:F553Copyright:© 2014 Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

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